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Cardiovascular Training


Aerobic metabolism refers to the production of energy from the breakdown of carbohydrates and fats in the presence of oxygen. Aerobic metabolism can produce an abundant amount of energy, but it does so at slower rate than anaerobic metabolism (exercise without the presence of oxygen).

An aerobic training plan should include workouts of varying intensities and durations, each having specific benefits to overall endurance performance.


The components of an aerobic training prescription should incorporate specific details regarding intensity, duration, volume, and mode of training.



The minimal threshold to improve fitness is the same for all modes of aerobic exercise, approximately 55% to 65% of maximum heart rate.  Clients can predict their maximum heart rate through the following equation:


Predicted HR Max = 220 – Age

Duration and Volume


Exercise Duration refers to the length of time a training session lasts. It is directly influenced by intensity. In contrast, training volume incorporates both intensity and duration of a training session.

Training volume is calculated by multiplying the duration of the exercise by (1) the distance traveled and (2) the exercise intensity (either average pace or heart rate during a training session).

Long-Duration, Moderate-Intensity Training

The most common type of training identified with aerobic endurance, often referred to as long, slow distance (LSD) training. LSD training is characterized by moderate intensities (typically 60% to 70% of Heart Rate Max) maintained for long periods of time (at least 30 minutes).  This form of exercise helps to enhance the basic cardiorespiratory and cardiovascular changes associated with improved fitness. Prolonged LSD activities have been reported to acutely increase the rate of fat metabolism.

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